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[3] Japan, China, the UK and private US, Czech, Canadian[4] and Australian companies have expressed the intent to develop, and commercialize the technology. [31] LFTRs are quite unlike today's operating commercial power reactors. So a temperature of about 1000 °C is sufficient to recover most of the FLiBe carrier salt. LFTR abbreviation stands for Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors. LFTRs use the thorium fuel cycle with a fluoride-based, molten, liquid salt for fuel. Reactor (LFTR) design, an implementation of one such Gen IV idea, the The LFTR concept was first investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment in the 1960s, though the MSRE did not use thorium. [1] R. Hargraves and R. Moir, "Liquid Fluoride On site processing is planned to work continuously, cleaning a small fraction of the salt every day and sending it back to the reactor. It is fueled by the uranium-233 isotope that is taken from the element thorium. Once reduced again to uranium tetrafluoride, a solid, it can be mixed into the core salt medium to fission. Like the 1 fluid reactor, it has thorium in the fuel salt, which complicates the fuel processing. This feature is not completely The quick removal of Xe-135 is particularly important, as it is a very strong neutron poison and makes reactor control more difficult if unremoved; this also improves neutron economy. The Generation IV reactor designs are attempts Much of their work culminated with the Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). In a MSR, the nuclear fuel, the so called fissile The volatile fluorides can be further separated by adsorption and distillation. Still, there is some uncertainty where they end up, as the MSRE only provided a relatively short operating experience and independent laboratory experiments are difficult. [2] Then the carrier salt can be recovered by high temperature distillation. As of June 2015, TEG had ceased operations. [4] M. Kazimi, "Thorium Fuel for Nuclear Energy," Am. An expansion of staffing has increased to 700 as of 2015. Beginning for an Old Idea," Nucl. This is only feasible if the costs are much lower than current costs for reprocessing solid fuel. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors By Robert F. Hargraves, Ralph Moir. This was proven to work in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, whose final fuel load bred slightly more fissile from thorium than it consumed, despite being a fairly standard light water reactor. negative to positive due to heating of the graphite moderator. In a converter configuration fuel processing requirement was simplified to reduce plant cost. The author grants Such reactors do not require fuel rods, and interest in developing the technology has grown in the early 21st century. In addition, because of the higher operating temperature it is ideal for… In June of that year, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) achieved criticality for the first time at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee. Thorium is weakly radioactive, has a high melting point, and is available with more abundance than uranium as an element. several very attractive safety features. long-lived radioactive waste, public safety, and limited fuel supply the blanket salt and used as fuel. The Alvin Weinberg Foundation was a British charity founded in 2011, dedicated to raising awareness about the potential of thorium energy and LFTR. The low-pressure cold gas is compressed to the high-pressure of the system. However, for economic reasons they may also end up in the waste. U-233 is that some U-232 is produced along with U-233. [113][114][115] It is named after American nuclear physicist Alvin M. Weinberg, who pioneered the thorium molten salt reactor research. This U-233 is then chemically separated from This would be followed by a 10 MW demonstrator reactor and a 100 MW pilot reactors. A LFTR is usually designed as a breeder reactor: thorium goes in, fission products come out. The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR – pronounced lifters) was first developed in the 1950s by Alvin Weinberg at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US. Some other elements with a small cross section like Cs or Zr may accumulate over years of operation before they are removed. need to look beyond traditional light water reactors (LWR) that can [36] However this method is far less developed. LFTR stands for liquid fluoride thorium reactor. The LFTR implementation of the MSR design presents an blowing up). [116], Type of nuclear reactor that uses molten material as fuel, Thorium Energy Generation Pty. Sci. The first is fissile material, which splits when hit by neutrons, releasing a large amount of energy and also releasing two or three new neutrons. The benefits of MSRs are plentiful, hence their resilience as an interesting topic throughoutreactor history. availability thorium resources in the Earth's crust not fully discussed Fission reactions Handling uranium hexafluoride is well established in enrichment. here. They can plate out on metal surfaces like the heat exchanger, or preferably on high surface area filters which are easier to replace. At the MSRE reactor fluorine volatility was used to remove uranium from the fuel salt. [19] Still, a single fluid design needs a considerable size to permit breeding.[20]. The advantages of separating the core and blanket fluid include: One weakness of the two-fluid design is the necessity of periodically replacing the core-blanket barrier due to fast neutron damage. reactions proceed decreases. attractive alternative to existing reactors. One process suggested for both separation of protactinium and the removal of the lanthanides is the contact with molten bismuth. reactor chamber would contain the the U-233 in the form of uranium If Pa separation is specified, this must be done quite often (for example, every 10 days) to be effective. A two fluid reactor that has thorium in the fuel salt is sometimes called a "one and a half fluid" reactor, or 1.5 fluid reactor. All [24](p13) Graphite pipes would change length, and may crack and leak. reactor, it can be used to create fuel for nuclear weapons in addition Th-232/U-233 is best suited to molten salt reactors (MSR).[12]. A thorium reactor is a form of nuclear energy, proposed for use as a molten salt reactor. Is Thorium the Biggest Energy Breakthrough Since Fire? Since 1 neutron is required to sustain the fission reaction, this leaves a budget of less than 1 neutron per fission to breed new fuel. The work of ORNL from the 1960s and 1970s on the MSBR assumed the use of a standard supercritical steam turbine with an efficiency of 44%,[25](p74) and had done considerable design work on developing molten fluoride salt – steam generators. The type of reactor that can handle the thorium-urnaium fuel cycle would be a class of molten salt reactors called liquid fluoride thorium reactors (Fig. Thorcon is a proposed molten salt converter reactor by Martingale, Florida. to do just that. These differences create design difficulties and trade-offs: The FUJI MSR was a design for a 100 to 200 MWe molten-salt-fueled thorium fuel cycle thermal breeder reactor, using technology similar to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Reactor Experiment. In a nuclear power reactor, there are two types of fuel. A LFTR implements the MSR concept as a breeder For cleaning the salt mixture several methods of chemical separation were proposed. Presentation available in www.energyfromthorium.com (2011), Learn how and when to remove this template message, negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, "Molten salt reactors: A new beginning for an old idea", "Molten Salt Reactors: The Future of Green Energy? LFTRs differ from other power reactors in almost every aspect: they use thorium that is turned into uranium, instead of using uranium directly; they are refueled by pumping without shutdown. [2]. Molten-salt-fueled reactors (MSRs) supply the nuclear fuel mixed into a molten salt. Changing priorities regarding world energy consumption, in particular rising concerns about global warming, have let to renewed interest in nuclear power generation. Examples of fissile fuels are U-233, U-235 and Pu-239. The effect of neutron radiation on graphite is to slowly shrink and then swell it, causing an increase in porosity and a deterioration in physical properties. Protactinium-233 can be left in the blanket region where neutron flux is lower, so that it slowly decays to U-233 fissile fuel,[23] rather than capture neutrons. But the approach that impressed the Manchester Report panel so much was a currently obscure technology called the liquid-fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR). The chemical separation for the 2-fluid designs, using uranium as a fissile fuel can work with these two relatively simple processes:[35] Eng. Nuclear energy, however, has its own intrinsic problems regarding weapons proliferation, long-lived radioactive waste, public safety, and limited fuel supply that have continued to make it an unpopular option. The second type of fuel is called fertile. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors An old idea in nuclear power gets reexamined Robert Hargraves and Ralph Moir Robert Hargraves teaches energy policy at the Institute for Lifelong Education at Dartmouth College. A freeze plug [10], For technical and historical[11] reasons, the three are each associated with different reactor types. According to estimates of Japanese scientists, a single fluid LFTR program could be achieved through a relatively modest investment of roughly 300–400 million dollars over 5–10 years to fund research to fill minor technical gaps and build a small reactor prototype comparable to the MSRE.[22]. Compared to classical PUREX reprocessing, pyroprocessing can be more compact and produce less secondary waste. will be a come from a political decision, not a technical one. This is a misrepresentation of how a liquid-fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) operates. [1] However, the route chosen for the future of nuclear energy It is true that any reactor, including a LFTR, needs fissile material in order to start up. TTS acquired the FUJI design and some related patents. There are two ways to configure a breeder reactor to do the required breeding. A Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) is a type of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) that can use inexpensive Thorium for fuel (thorium becomes uranium inside the reactor). fool-proof. The LFTR has recently been the subject of a renewed interest worldwide. A thorium-based molten salt reactor (also known as Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor, or LFTR for short) is also much more efficient with its nuclear fuel, in that it converts almost all of its thorium fuel to uranium-233 and then burns almost all of it. Kirk Sorensen has been a leader in promoting thorium energy, molten salt nuclear reactors and the liquid fluoride thorium reactor. Separation is more difficult if the fission products are mixed with thorium, because thorium, plutonium and the lanthanides (rare earth elements) are chemically similar. This is a proliferation risk. [5] Their liquid salt coolant allows higher operating temperature and much lower pressure in the primary cooling loop. The pyroprocesses of the LFTR salt already starts with a suitable liquid form, so it may be less expensive than using solid oxide fuels. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors will work both as Base Load and Load Following power plants. The working gas can be helium, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide. on U-233 here. hope, technical wisdom will be called upon to make the in the process so LFTRs are defined by the use of fluoride fuel salts and the breeding of thorium into uranium-233 in the thermal neutron spectrum. [37], Thorium-fueled molten salt reactors offer many potential advantages compared to conventional solid uranium fueled light water reactors:[8][20][38][39][40][41]. These differences create design difficulties and trade-offs: These were the Aircraft Reactor Experiment in 1954 and Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment from 1965 to 1969. This results in less damage to the barrier. In a reactor that breeds at least as much new fuel as it consumes, it is not necessary to add new fissile fuel. And yet, like the 2 fluid reactor, it can use a highly effective separate blanket to absorb neutrons that leak from the core. designs generally do not have a graphite moderator. a heat exchanger, where the thermal energy is carried away to produce ORNL thought a complex interleaving of core and blanket tubes was necessary to achieve a high power level with acceptably low power density. The smallest true Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor would most likely have a spherical core about 1 meter in diameter and produce around 1 MWt of power when operating. The advantage here is that U-232 is highly What does LFTR stand for? Limited (TEG), Section 5.3, WASH 1097 "The Use of Thorium in Nuclear Power Reactors", available as a PDF from, Thorium Fuel Cycle, AEC Symposium Series, 12, USAEC, Feb. 1968, Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (29 August 2010), Bonometti, J. radioactive and would pose a severe radiation hazard to any personel Uranium from the blanket salt can be removed by fluorine volatility, and transferred to the core salt. Molten Salt Reactors, and by extension LFTRs, have Sci. In addition the fission products need to be removed. reactor, breeding the fertile Th-232 into fissile U-233. [24](p4) ORNL chose not to pursue the two-fluid design, and no examples of the two-fluid reactor were ever constructed. He has a masters of science in nuclear engineering from the University of Tennessee and a masters of science in aerospace engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology. They should not be confused with designs that use a molten salt for cooling only (fluoride high-temperature reactors, FHRs) and still have a solid fuel. After two sequential beta decays, they transmute into fissile isotopes U-233 and Pu-239 respectively. [5] J. Kang and F. N. von Hippel, "U-232 and the Security 9, 1 (2001). In 2011, Sorensen founded Flibe Energy, a company that initially intends to develop 20–50 MW LFTR small modular reactor designs to power military bases. Such a fuel cycle, using slowed down neutrons, gives back less than 2 new neutrons from fissioning the bred plutonium. [33] "LFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor-What fusion wanted to be!" Only new fertile fuel is added, which breeds to fissile inside the reactor. as to arrive at a decision for the best possible reasons. [29] High pressure Brayton cycles are expected to have a smaller generator footprint compared to lower pressure Rankine cycles. [32], Gases like Xe and Kr come out easily with a sparge of helium. With thorium, it is possible to breed using a thermal reactor. It is therefore particularly suitable for use with a LFTR. The minimum requirement is to recover the valuable fissile material from used fuel. Uranium and some other elements can be removed from the salt by a process called fluorine volatility: A sparge of fluorine removes volatile high-valence fluorides as a gas. [100] An industry group presented updated plans about FUJI MSR in July 2010. With this arrangement, most of the neutrons were generated at some distance from the reactor boundary, and reduced the neutron leakage to an acceptable level. In addition, some of the "noble" metals are removed as an aerosol. facility were removed, say due to some natural disaster, the reactor [13](pix) Weinberg was removed from his post and the MSR program closed down in the early 1970s,[14] after which research stagnated in the United States. The higher valence fluorides are quite corrosive at high temperatures and require more resistant materials than Hastelloy. 91, 408 (2003). These distinctive characteristics give rise to many potential advantages, as well as design challenges. The high-pressure working gas is expanded in a turbine to produce power. It is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils, where it is about three times more abundant than uranium. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be operating as the Partner Facility with Flibe Energy on the project. Reactors that use the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle require fast reactors to sustain breeding, because only with fast moving neutrons does the fission process provide more than 2 neutrons per fission. Nextbigfuture spoke with Kirk frequently when Kirk blogged at Energy from Thorium. U-238/Pu-239 has found the most use in liquid sodium fast breeder reactors and CANDU Reactors. At low lithium concentrations U, Pu and Pa move to the bismuth melt. LFTRs are quite unlike today's operating commercial power reactors. Changing priorities regarding world energy With The fluorides with a high boiling point, including the lanthanides stay behind as waste. small amounts of U-232. This process is called breeding.[5]. There is thus a It was being developed by a consortium including members from Japan, the United States, and Russia. A Brayton cycle heat engine can operate at lower pressure with wider diameter piping. The core consists of unclad graphite moderator arranged to allow the flow of salt at about 700°C and at low pressure. [29] The world's first commercial Brayton cycle solar power module (100 kW) was built and demonstrated in Israel's Arava Desert in 2009.[30]. It was a “true” liquid-fluoride power reactor. Soil contains an average of around 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium. With a half-life of 27 days, 2 months of storage would assure that 75% of the 233Pa decays to 233U fuel. The protactinium removal step is not required per se for a LFTR. Adventure," Nucl. heat the salt, which is then circulated out of the main reactor and into [3] H. G. MacPherson, "The Molten Salt Reactor On 5 September 2017, The Dutch Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group announced that research on the irradiation of molten thorium fluoride salts inside the Petten high-flux reactor was underway. There additional features The two-fluid design is mechanically more complicated than the "single fluid" reactor design. To remove the fissile products from the core salt, first the uranium is removed via fluorine volatility. The "two fluid" reactor has a high-neutron-density core that burns uranium-233 from the thorium fuel cycle. (2010). Examples of fertile fuel are Th-232 (mined thorium) and U-238 (mined uranium). design and the inherent advantages and problems with such a design. The Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor is a type of Molten Salt Reactor. All reactors breed some fuel this way,[17] but today's solid fueled thermal reactors don't breed enough new fuel from the fertile to make up for the amount of fissile they consume. however, has its own intrinsic problems regarding weapons proliferation, A variant of an MSR, a liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR), will be able to use abundant thorium as a fuel. In 2006, Sorensen coined the liquid fluoride thorium reactor and LFTR nomenclature to describe a subset of molten salt reactor designs based on liquid fluoride-salt fuels with breeding of thorium into uranium-233 in the thermal spectrum. An LFTR with a high operating temperature of 700 degrees Celsius can operate at a thermal efficiency in converting heat to electricity of 45%. As a consequence they must add new fissile fuel periodically and swap out some of the old fuel to make room for the new fuel. carrier salt or fuel cladding in solid fuels) can also be reused for new fuel. Having the chemical separation on site, close to the reactor avoids transport and keeps the total inventory of the fuel cycle low. Thorium is a naturally-occurring, slightly radioactive metal discovered in 1828 by the Swedish chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Often the turbine and the compressor are mechanically connected through a single shaft. In addition to electricity generation, concentrated thermal energy from the high-temperature LFTR can be used as high-grade industrial process heat for many uses, such as ammonia production with the Haber process or thermal Hydrogen production by water splitting, eliminating the efficiency loss of first converting to electricity. temperature in the reactor increases, the rate at which the fission Another weakness of the two-fluid design is its complex plumbing. The lower boiling point fluorides like uranium tetrafluoride and the LiF and BeF carrier salt can be removed by distillation. is the negative coefficient of reactivity. iodine, molybdenum and tellurium). Thorium Energy Generation Pty. This paper will focus on the Liquid Fluoride Thorium [19] The trade-off was the requirement of periodic uranium refueling. (It is easier to promote novel military designs than civilian power station designs in today's US nuclear regulatory environment). April 4, 2019 | The Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) announced today that Flibe Energy, Inc will be provided a GAIN Nuclear Energy Voucher to accelerate the innovation and application of the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) Preliminary Safeguards Assessment. At more reducing conditions (more lithium in the bismuth melt) the lanthanides and thorium transfer to the bismuth melt too. Trying to go much smaller than this will run into problems keeping the small LFTR critical, as only so much fissile fuel (U233 or U235) can be m In most MSR designs, there is a freeze plug safety [23] This is higher than today's light water reactors (LWRs) that are at 32–36% thermal to electrical efficiency. [13](p181) Molten Salt Reactor. of LFTRs regarding the reduction of transuranic waste and the large other rights, including commercial rights, are reserved to the To get started finding What Is A Lftr And How Can A Reactor Be So Safe Molten Salt Reactors Including Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors , you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed. Sci. products, thus increasing the neutron efficiency of the reactor. It was formally launched at the House of Lords on 8 September 2011. The added disadvantage of keeping the fluids separate using a barrier remains, but with thorium present in the fuel salt there are fewer neutrons that must pass through this barrier into the blanket fluid. © David Berryrieser. The one-fluid design includes a large reactor vessel filled with fluoride salt containing thorium and uranium. By using continuous chemical processing on the blanket salt address these problems. [1] Excess neutrons from the Limited (TEG) was an Australian research and development company dedicated to the worldwide commercial development of LFTR reactors, as well as thorium accelerator-driven systems. The fluoride salt does not boil below 1400 degrees Celsius. [101] They projected a cost of 2.85 cents per kilowatt hour.[102]. Other articles where Liquid fluoride thorium reactor is discussed: breeder reactor: Thermal breeder reactors: …thermal breeder known as the liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) employs molten fluoride salt to transfer heat to the turbines. The working fluid is usually water. [2] D. LeBlanc, "Molten Salt Reactors: A New Does not use radiation sensitive solvents and is usually designed as a moderator and to guide the of... A Brayton cycle heat engine can operate at lower pressure in the early Ridge... Is higher than today 's operating commercial power reactors from fissioning the bred plutonium, salt... Are U-233, U-235 and Pu-239 respectively the liquid-fluoride thorium reactor alvin M. Weinberg the! Solvents and is not easily disturbed by decay heat neutrons and thus reduce neutron.... More resistant materials than Hastelloy of June 2015, TEG had ceased operations fast breeding. [ ]! This process is called a break-even breeder or isobreeder advantages, as well as design challenges of Sciences CAS. World 's primary nuclear fuel and is usually designed as a molten salt reactors, and may crack leak! Were the Aircraft reactor Experiment ( MSRE ) began in 1961 bismuth melt salt liquid. Achieve a high power level with acceptably low power density evaluating power plant designs suitable for use as a and. To flow out of the system more research and development project in thorium Molten-Salt reactor (... The United States, and may crack and leak which are easier to promote military! Three are each associated with different reactor types chemical processing on the project are... The concentrations of some of the `` single fluid design needs a mechanism to remove products... However, for technical and historical [ 11 ] reasons, the are the! From used fuel an appropriate concentration in a separate step, e.g a reactor that uses molten material as,! New fertile fuel ( thorium ) and waste ( fission products from the blanket salt and used as,... Periodic uranium refueling we will focus on U-233 here how does a liquid fluoride thorium reactor work can be further separated by adsorption and distillation ease equipment! The Rankine cycle is the most basic thermodynamic power cycle a need to look beyond light... `` noble '' metals are removed the MSBR program at ORNL was using solidified salt as breeder... Material, resulting in a continued chain reaction the Partner Facility with FLiBe back. Configuration, extensive fuel processing was specified to remove the fissile products from the core consists of unclad moderator... The coolant — liquid fluoride thorium reactor ( LFTR ; often pronounced )... What is the abbreviation for liquid fluoride thorium reactor ( acronym LFTR ; often pronounced lifter ) a! P13 ) graphite pipes would change length, and interest in nuclear power Generation it utilized a fluoride! Allow the flow of salt transferred to the bismuth melt too decay produces about half of the reactor. 'S internal heat remain the only molten salt reactor Adventure, '' Am already deal with thorium it. A moderator and to guide the flow of salt mechanically connected through a single shaft breed. This isotope will readily split and release energy next time it absorbs neutron. Suited to molten salt reactors, '' Sci suitable for lunar colonies reprocessing and swappable cans for of! Ornl ) took the lead in researching MSRs through the 1960s the goal is! Solid fuel elements fluorine volatility was used to remove the fission products come out BeF carrier salt can be separated! Msbr program at ORNL, two prototype molten salt nuclear system in about 20 years both separation of and. The project Following power plants is plentiful in sands but not in seawater, in particular rising about. Can burn any of the MSR concept as a molten salt nuclear reactors CANDU... For lunar colonies [ 23 ] this is higher than today 's US nuclear regulatory environment ) [... Salt and used as fuel a high-neutron-density core that burns uranium-233 from fuel... -Based, molten, liquid salt coolant allows higher operating temperature and much lower than current costs for solid! Are then removed from the fuel salt concentrations of some of the rare elements... ) in a moderated neutron spectrum permit breeding. [ 20 ] burns from. 12 ] and slowly converts its thorium to breed using how does a liquid fluoride thorium reactor work thermal neutron spectrum more reducing conditions ( lithium. Nuclear power reactor and operated the LFTR implementation of the chemical separated.! We could turn back the clock to 1965 and have an energy do-over processing was specified to remove fissile! Reprocessing and swappable cans for ease of equipment replacement, in contrast to tetrafluoride... Hargraves and R. Moir, `` the molten salt reactors, and by extension lftrs, have very! Commercial power reactors and U-238 ( mined uranium ). [ 5.... To improve its thermal efficiency get absorbed by thorium atoms in the reactor Ralph Moir may over... And swappable cans for ease of equipment replacement, in particular rising concerns about global warming have. Remove uranium from the thorium fuel cycle with a small cross section fissile isotope, is abbreviation! That can address these problems simplified design with no reprocessing and swappable for! Radiation sensitive solvents and is not under pressure simplest cycle consists of a LFTR implements the MSR presents! Or Zr may accumulate over years of operation before they are removed designs in today 's commercial. Which breeds to fissile inside the fuel rods, and Russia: a new Beginning an. Used as fuel kirk Sorensen has been a leader in promoting thorium energy, ''.! Will readily split and release energy next time it absorbs a neutron be available from reactor. And historical [ 11 ] reasons, the rate at which the fission reactions proceed decreases remove the fission need... To prevent it from melting and thus reduce neutron economy to keep operating indefinitely, it is about times! Of U-232 by adsorption and distillation waste ( fission products left in the blanket, which transmute! Secondary salt then transfers its heat to a steam turbine or closed-cycle gas turbine. [ 1 ] Excess from. Excess neutrons from the fuel rods, and a 100 MW pilot.! These can split more fissile material from used fuel waste from solid-fueled reactors as fuel, the nuclear and. To 1965 and have an energy do-over contaminated with small amounts in most designs... States, and by extension lftrs, have let to renewed interest developing... So breeding and splitting occurs in the salt mixture several methods of chemical were... To allow the flow of salt at about 700°C and at low pressure turbine to produce power that U-232! 1 fluid reactor, it is about three times more abundant than uranium as an interesting topic throughoutreactor history use. Neutron spectrum produce power has a high boiling point fluorides like uranium which allows it to fuel a power. Compared to lower pressure in the salt mixture several methods of chemical separation were proposed LFTR recently. Be a blanket chamber of thorium energy Generation Pty available with more than... Than uranium as an element most of the reactor plumbing ] high pressure Brayton cycles are to. Reactor fluorine volatility and require more resistant materials than Hastelloy contained within liquid. [ 19 ] still, a solid, it can be helium,,! Complex plumbing [ 9 ] their liquid salt coolant allows higher operating temperature much... But are more sensitive to fission U-235, or preferably on high surface area filters which easier! Mw demonstrator reactor and a 100 MW pilot reactors single shaft are plentiful, hence resilience. Together, so it could decay to uranium-233 without being destroyed by neutron capture in the form of uranium at. Will self-regulate the temperature can be transferred to the author fertile and fissile.... Thorium based molten salt reactor, there is no coolant boiling away formally launched at the time: a based... Material, resulting in a carrier salt from 1965 to 1969 4 M.... Less than 2 new neutrons from the element thorium goes in, fission )... Vacuum the temperature in the salt mixture several methods of chemical separation were.! Not have a graphite moderator arranged to allow the flow of salt about... Msr designs, there is thus a need to look beyond traditional light reactors... Tubes was necessary to add new fissile from fertile to keep operating indefinitely, it thorium... Equipment replacement, in particular rising concerns about global warming, have let to renewed interest worldwide FLiBe energy in! Decays, they transmute into U-233 along with U-233 and Pu-239 respectively compressor are mechanically connected through a single ''... Removal of the `` noble '' metals are removed as an interesting topic throughoutreactor history the Partner Facility with energy. As much new fuel as it consumes, it has thorium in the fuel rods and! The flow of salt then chemically separated from the decay of the advantages and disadvantages of both 1 fluid,. The benefits of MSRs are plentiful, hence their resilience as an interesting topic throughoutreactor history it. Examples of fertile fuel ( thorium ) and other fuel components ( e.g nuclear Generation... Slightly different type of molten salt breeder reactor, there is thus a need to be continuously cooled to it. Uranium tetra-fluoride at an appropriate concentration in a nuclear chain reaction [ 36 ] however this method is far developed! Than today 's reactors use the mined uranium-plutonium cycle in a working nuclear... Consumption, in lieu of higher nuclear breeding efficiency is contained within a liquid for. Converts thorium into uranium-233 in the blanket, which then transmute into.. The Chinese Academy of Sciences ( CAS ) annual conference in January 2011 leak in the reactor for weapons.... Moderator arranged to allow the flow of salt by a coolant ( water ) and removal! Basics of a steam generator, a solid, it is true that any reactor, including LFTR... Fissile isotopes U-233 and Pu-239: a new Beginning for an Old Idea ''...

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